SOME OF THE MANY SWEDISH INVENTIONS:
||Johan Petter Johansson
||Carl Richard Nyberg
mouse, color comp.color Graphics
|Hydraulic Rock Drill
||Viggo Romell/Atlas Copco
Visby/High Tech Stealth Technology Cruiser
|Jas 39 Gripen
||Gustav De Laval
||Johan Petter Johansson
||Carl George Munters
||Gustav Eric Pasch Gustav von Platen
||Gustav De Laval
||Bengt Gadefelt/SAAB SCANIA
||190 mtrs high, 54 stories
See below for more detailed info about the innovations:
Anders Celsius (1701-1744)
Anders Celsius devoted himself entirely to mathematics and astronomy
and was appointed professor of astronomy at Uppsala University at the
age of 29. Celsius was instrumental in the building of Sweden’s
first observatory in Uppsala in 1741. Celsius contributed through his
countless observations to world knowledge of solar and lunar eclipses,
the orbits of the planets, comets, the aberrations of the stars and the
breakdown of light in the atmosphere. Celsius is most famous for his
invention of new type of thermometer with one hundred degrees between
the freezing point (0oC or 32o F) of water and the boiling point (100o
C or 212o F) of water. Today his thermometer is used throughout the
Note: To calculate Celsius to Fahrenheit: Double the Celsius degrees, deduct 10%, add 32.
To calculate Fahrenheit to Celsius: Decuct 32, add 10%, divide by 2
Carolus Linnaeus ( 1707-1778) and The System of Nature (Systema Naturae)
Linnaeus (also known as Carl von Linné) classified all the plants,
animal and minerals of the world into different species and families,
giving them uniquely individual names, written in Latin. He sent his
students to the far corners of the world to collect specimens and
report on their findings. His book was published in 1735 and laid the
foundation for the classification of plants and animals that is still
used by botanists and zoologists throughout the world. As an indication
of his importance, it is worth mentioning that Linnaeus’
scientific works are some of the most often cited in the Science
Read more in this section about Carl Linnaeus - click on Famous Swedes
Eva Ekeblad (1724-1786)
Eva Ekeblad experimented with potatoes for both the and the production of powder and distillation of vodka.
Her attempts to produce potato vodka succeeded in 1748 and the Swedes
began to grow more potatoes for alcohol production. With time, the
Swedes found the courage to try eating potatoes too.
The Pre-Industrial Sweden in the 1870’s experienced
an unprecedented period of expansion. Compulsory elementary education,
introduced in 1842, increased greatly the population’s reading
and writing skills and transformed Sweden from an agricultural nation
to an industrial one.
the corporations established during this period include Atlas Copco,
Ericsson, ASEA (ABB), Alfa Laval, Stal Laval, AGA, SKF, ESAB,
Electrolux and Sandvik.
By mixing nitroglycerine with black powder and using fuse cord Alfred
Nobel got his first patent in 1863. The black powder consisted of
porous, absorbent sand, which could be kneaded and easily formed. He
named it dynamite, from the Greek word dynamis, meaning power. One year
later, he obtained a patent for his invention, the Nobel Igniter which
is the greatest discovery made both in principle and practice of
explosives. Alfred Nobel became the first person to bring his
innovations from science into industry. At the time of his death, he
held 355 patents. He built a multinational corporate empire with
manufacturing and sales offices in more than 20 countries.
The final will of Alfred Nobel was signed in 1895. The first Nobel
Prizes were distributed in 1901. The Nobel Prize is an award given
yearly for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and
Read about the amazing Nobel family in this section:
click on "Famous Swedes "
Gustaf Erik Pash (1788-1862), Johan Edvard Lundstrom (1815-1888) and Alexander Lagerman (1836-1904).
In 1844 Pash received a patent for the Safety Match,
where the deadly yellow phosphorus used in earlier matches was replaced
with red phosphorus, which he placed on the matchbox rather than in the
head of the match. Lagerman constructed the first automatic
match-making machine in 1892, making possible the mass production of
matches. The manufacture of matches became the basis for a huge
corporate empire led by the infamous industrialist Ivar Kreuger
(1880-1932). At one point the Swedish corporation had a monopoly on world match production, accounting for 75% of all matches manufactured worldwide.
John Ericsson 1803-1889
Ericsson developed hot-air and steam engines and solar heater, and
became famous for his practical construction of rotary marine
propellers. (Propellers have barely changed in appearance since
Ericsson presented his design). Ericsson gained his greatest fame for
building the Monitor, an armored Union Navy warship which conquered the
Confederate Navy’s Merrimac during the American Civil War in 1862.
Gustaf de Laval (1845-1913)
first model of Laval’s cream separator, a device used for
separating cream from milk and making the manufacturing of butter muche
easier, was patented in 1878 and 1883. His original company AB
Separator is presently known as Alfa-Laval AB. De Laval also invented
the modern farming and dairy industry with the invention of the Milking
Machine in 1896. De Laval’s most remarkable invention was a steam
turbine equipped with specially shaped steam jets. , which gave the
steam a speed greater than the speed of sound when it hit the turbine
blades. During he 19000’s , it was the most-widely used steam
power source in the world.
Lars Magnus Ericsson (1846-1926)
Ericsson began manufacturing telephones in 1881 in his company L.M. Ericsson & Co.
In 1885 he invented the telephone handset.
The basis for mobile telephones was established in the 1950’s.
The equipment was clumsy and the range was short. In 1976, Osten
Makitalo, head of a research group at Ericsson, created a wireless
telephone system for everyone. (NMT Network Management Technologies) .
In the beginning of the 1980”s NMT made its breakthrough in
modern mobile telephones. Ericsson took advantage of their head start
and during the 1990’s became the world’s leading seller of
mobile telephone systems
Johan Petter Johansson (1853-1943)
Over one hundred years ago, Johan Peter Johansson invented the
adjustable wrench. Sandvik Bahco has manufactured over 100 million
adjustable wrenches and production continues. Each year, about 40
million adjustable wrenches are manufactured around the world using the
design developed by John Petter Johansson.
Gideon Sundbäck (1880-1954) and Peter Aronsson
Although the first zipper was patented by Elias Howe in 1851, the
zipper was developed in 1900 by Gideon Sundbäck, an electrical
engineer, and Peter Aronsson.. Patent was granted in 1914 in the USA to
where Sundbäck and Aronsson emigrated and opened a factory for the
production of the zipper. The appearance of the zipper has not changed
since Sundbäck’s and Aronsson’s days.
Gustaf Dalén (1869-1937)
During 1905-1909 Dalén developed four famous inventions which became the cornerstones of the AGA system:
AGA lighthouses became maintenance-free when Dalén
added a device which automatically changed burned-out gas mantles.
These lighthouses has been used around the world increasing the safety
of ocean transport and bringing huge savings in personel and material
costs. His system is also used in lighted buoys, aircraft landing
lights, windindicators and railroad signals. Gustaf Dalén was
awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1912.
- Aga, a gas storage medium which reduced the risk of acetylene explosions during transport.
- Intermittent lamp for lighthouses which gave rapid flashes of light from acetylene gas.
- Solar valve, which automatically lit the gas lamp of a lighthouse when darkness fell and extinguished it at daybreak.
- Mixer, an apparatus which blended acetylene gas with air.
Viktor Hasselblad (1906-1978)
When Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin as the first men to
set foot on the moon, took photos of the moon’s surface, they
used a Swedish camera, made by Hasselblad company in Gothenburg. The
Hasselblad company was formed in 1941 and manufactured aerial cameras
for the Swedish air force. Victor Hasselblad built a precision camera
for civilian use and presented his invention: a camera based on a
single-lens reflex system.
Hasselblad Prize is one of the most prestigious photographic prizes in the world.
Baltzar von Platen (1898-1984) and Carl Munters (1897-1989)
The invention of a refrigerator without moving parts was a revolution.
Production and sales began in 1925, paving the way for the corporation
that would become Electrolux
Sven Wingquist (1876-1953)
The Swedish engineer, Sven Wingquist, furthered the
ball-bearing technology and invented the self-aligning spherical roller
bearing. Sweden’s famous ball-bearing specialist, SKF (Svenska
Kullager Fabriken) was founded in 1907 to exploit the invention.
Ruben Rausing(1895-1983) and Erik Wallenberg (1915-1999)
In 1951, Tetra Pak presented the revolutionizing idea for the storage
of non-carbonated drinks such as milk and juice in plastic-coated paper
containers. The combination of a tetrahedron shape of plastic-coated
paper. By the end of the 1960’s, Tetra Pak products were in use
throughout the world. The company made new advances in packaging
technology and introduced “Tetra Brik” carton in 1963.
Alexander Samuelson left Sweden at the end of the 19th century by boat
to America. In 1915 he created the original Coca-Cola bottle.
Nils Svensson revolutionized shipbuilding. Starting with a model built
in his cellar, he created an entirely new way to build large ocean
craft. His method laid the groundwork for the revolutionary Arendal
Shipyard in Gothenburg which was founded in 1850 by Christian Backman.
Now Götaverken Arendal.
Hydraulic Rock Drill
The first hydraulic rock drill was sold in 1973. These
drills offer greater power and depth capacity than pneumatic rock
drills. The most important components of these drills is a recoil
damping system, invented in 1975 by Viggo Romell, chef engineer and
project manager for Atlas Copco. Atlas Copco has also developed
handheld pneumatic and gasoline-driven rock drills (the
“Cobra”) which operate at low vibration levels. Atlas Copco
has been awarded prizes for the design of its handheld rock drills.
SAAB Turbo Engine
Turbo engines had been used for many
years in motor racing, but were not available to everyday drivers as
they were difficult to maintain, were unreliable and had poor fuel
economy. In 1976, Bengt Gadefelt, project manager at Saab-Scania,
developed a turbo engine for passenger cars. In 1984 SAAB became one of
the first car manufacturers in the world to market a mass-produced car,
equipped with a four-cylinder engine with 16 valves and turbo charging.
Håkan Lans, civil engineer, is one
of Sweden’s most famous living inventors. He is known for three
major inventions: the computer mouse, color computer graphics (today
his color graphics are used by almost all computer manufacturers) and
GP&P (Global Positioning & Communication). With the GP&P,
pilots navigators and automobile drives can se exactly where they are
and also see where other aircrafts, ships and cars are. Håkan Lans
Hakan Lans and his team worked on further development and applications
of satellite navigation systems. In 980 and eventually came up with an
ingenious system known as STDMA (Self-organizing Time Division Multiple
Access) It uses highly accurate global timing, offered by Navstar
satellites. For positioning down to a few meters accuracy and can
provide collision avoidance information and warning for aircraft or
ships. STDMA was accepted as a world standard for sea traffic by the
International Maritime Organization in 1999 and for air traffic control
by the International Civil Aviation Organization in 2001. Hakan Lans is
today holding over 50 patents and a range of non-patent innovations and
has received several invention and innovation awards.
Professor Lars Leskell and Professor Borge Larsson and the Gamma Knife
In 1968, Professor Lars Leskell of the Karolinska Institute in
Stockholm, Sweden and Professor Borge Larsson of the Gustaf Werner
Institute at the University of Uppsala, Sweden developed the Gamma
Knife. As far back as the 1940's, Leskell recognized the need for an
instrument to target deep-seated intracranial structures without the
risks of invasive open skull surgery. The Gamma Knife is a
revolutionary instrument used to treat arteriovenous malfunctions (AVM)
and certain brain tumors without a single incision. The risk of
surgical complications is greatly reduced because the procedure is
performed without an incision. Therefore, Gamma Knife radio surgery is
virtually painless. Patients routinely use only a local anesthesia with
a mild sedative, thereby eliminating the side effects and dangers of
Conventional neurosurgery means a lengthy hospital stay, expensive
medication and sometimes months of rehabilitation. The Gamma Knife
reduces these costs greatly. Patients are usually` able to leave the
hospital the same day and resume their normal activities immediately.
Post-surgical disability and convalescent costs are nonexistent.
Today, based on more than two decades of in-depth research and clinical
study, the Gamma Knife emerges as the most technologically advanced
stereotactic radio surgery of our time.
Swedish physician Rune Elmqvist (1906-1996) developed
the first pacemaker to be inserted by operation and surgeon Åke
Senning carried out the first surgery in 1958 at Karolinksa sjukhuset
in Solna. Later in 1975, Finn Seppo Säynäjäkangas and
his company Polar Electro started producing small and low-cost heart
rate monitors, a major international success in the sports markets.Rune
Elmqvist was a medical doctor but worked later as an engineer and
1931 Rune Elmqvist developed the first EKG
Sources:. Karolinska Institutet and Wikipedia
Sources: Swedish Institute. (SI), www.si.se
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien) was founded in 1739 and regarded as the birth date for natural sciences in Sweden.